Hi-Tech Green Energy Sdn Bhd
Unit 88, Menara Shell,
Level 19, Jalan Tun
50470 Kuala Lumpur,
+603-2718 5659
+603-9226 2276


Term Meaning
Active Door The door in a pair of doors which the lock is applied too and which is the first to open
Acoustics Scientific study of sound
AFRC Australian Fenestration Rating Council
Air Gap Air space between the panes of glass in an insulating glass unit (IGU). Also known as a cavity, airspace or spacer width, even when another gas (eg argon) is used in the cavity instead of air
Air infiltration (air leakage) The amount of air leaking in and out of a building through cracks in walls, windows and doors
Aluminium Cavity Storm mould Fitted to window by bricklayer to bridge gap if a full brick construction (built in with window)
Annealed Glass Ordinary float glass (not safety glass or energy efficiency glass)
Arched Head A curved and glazed portion of the window that is at the head of the window
Argon Gas An inert, non-toxic gas used in insulating glass units to reduce heat transfer
Annealing Manufacturing of float glass and obscure glass, where the process of controlled cooling down to help prevent residual stresses in the glass.
AS Australian Standard
Aspect Ratio The ratio of the longer side of a glass panel to the shorter side of glass panel
Attenuation The reduction of sound intensity (or signal strength) with distance. Attenuation is the opposite of amplification, and is measured in decibels
AWA Australian Window Association
Awning Window A window that is hinged at or near the top and swings out from the bottom to open allowing limited air circulation. (They do not open as fully as a casement window but can be left open in the rain)
Bar An extrusion applied to sashes/fixed lites that divides glazing into decorative patterns. (Standard bar patterns include Colonial and Federation styles)
Balance A device fitted to either side of each double hung sash, which balances the weight of the sash allowing the sash to stay in any open position.
Bay Window Series of windows assembled in a polygon shape that project outward from the face of a house
Bead See Glazing Bead
Beveling The process of grinding and polishing a sloped angle on the face of the end of flat glass which results in a decorative edge appearance to the glass
Bifold Door (bi-fold folding door) Bifold doors consist of two or more panels. These doors are hinged at one side and the panels are hinged together. The doors fold into one area providing a larger opening.
Bushfire Attack Burning embers, radiant heat or flame generated by a bushfire, which might result in ignition and subsequent damage or destruction of a building
Bushfire Attack Level (BAL) The bushfire attack level for the site as determined by council zoning areas under Australian Standard 3959-2009. The six BAL levels are BAL-LOW, BAL-12.5, BAL-19, BAL29, BAL-40 or BAL-FZ
Bushfire resisting timber Timber that is deemed to be acceptable to withstand exposure up to a BAL-29 condition by means of one or more of: a) the inherent properties of the timber material itself; b) being impregnated with fire-retardant chemicals; or c) the application of fire-retardant coatings or substances. A list of approved timber species can be found in AS3959 Appendix F.
Bushfire shutter A screen or barrier fixed to the building for the protection of window or door openings against bushfire attack.
Casement Window Casement window is pivot on hinges that can swing outward like a door and controlled by a winding handle. They can also be hinged at the sides and swing in the vertical plane to open and close.
Combustible (Bushfire) The classification of a material that is capable of igniting as determined by Australian Standard 1530.1
Condensation The deposit of water vapour from the air on any cold surface whose temperature is below the dew point, such as cold window glass or frame that is exposed to humid indoor air.  (Liquid forming on the windows)
Conduction Heat transfer through a solid material by contact of one molecule to the next. Heat flows from a higher-temperature area to a lower-temperature one.
Convection A heat transfer process involving motion in a fluid (such as air) caused by the difference in density of the fluid and the action of gravity.  Convection affects heat transfer from the glass surface to room air, and between two panes of glass.
Corner stacker A moulded plastic component that is used to keep the sash corners square
Coupler An aluminium extrusion used to join windows in either horizontal or vertical combinations
dB(A) A unit of measure for decibels. The A-weighted scale indicates the human ear’s sensitivity to various frequencies.
Desiccant Extremely porous crystalline substance used to absorb moisture from within the sealed air space of an insulating glass unit
Double Glazed Unit (also known as IGU) IGU’s consists of two or more panels of glass separated by an air space and some type of spacer around the edges.  An example of a commonly used double glazed unit is 5-8-5 (18mm) which is 5mm glass with an 8mm air gap and 5mm glass. The spacer contains a desiccant (drying agent) which eliminates moisture vapour in the cavity.  The combination of the two panels of glass and the trapped air is what makes IGU’s a superior energy efficient method of glazing.  The IGU can perform a thermal and noise insulating function.  The narrowest air gap used is 6mm, but wider gaps (10-20mm) will improve performance.  For greater performance one of the glass panels should have a low-e coating and argon gas between the panes.
Double Hung Window A window that has two vertically moving sashes, controlled by spring or spiral balances, each opening and closing the top and bottom sash
Dormer Window A space which protrudes from the roof, usually including one or more windows.
Emissivity The ability of material to emit radiant energy (heat). Emittance is the ratio of the total radiant energy emitted by a given surface to that emitted by an ideal black body at the same temperature. To emit is to give out, to discharge – in regards to glass, essentially to re-radiate absorbed energy (heat)
Ember attack Smouldering or flaming wind borne debris that is capable of entering or accumulating around a building and may ignite the building or other combustible materials and debris.
Ember Guard A cover inserted in or over an opening or cavity to prevent the entry of burning embers.
Engineered Veneered Stiles Components made up of finger jointed smaller components then covered with approx 2mm laminated veneer over the top
Extrusion Aluminium or uPVC profiles used in a window.  An extrusion is produced by pushing material through a die with an aperture of the shape of the section
Engineered Veneered Stiles Components made up of finger jointed smaller components then covered with approx 2mm laminated veneer over the top
Federation A distinctive bar pattern contained within the frame or sash of a window/door
Fire Rated Door A door that is required by building codes for certain parts of a building – between the garage and the house for residences- and takes a certain number of minutes to burn.
Fire resistance level (FRL)
(xx/xx/xx minutes FRL)
The nominal grading period, in minutes, that is determined by subjecting a specimen material or system to a fire test as set out in Australian Standard 1530.4 to specify structural adequacy, integrity and insulation.eg an FRL of 120/60/30 minutes means 120 minutes structural fire adequacy/60 minutes fire integrity/30 minutes fire insulation. 0 minutes FRL is indicated by a dash, eg -/60/30.
Fixed Lite Fixed panes of glass used for light and views only
Fixed Sash/Panel Non operable sash/panel in a window/door
Flame Zone (FZ) The highest level of bushfire attack as a consequence of direct exposure to flames from the fire front in addition to heat flux and ember attack.
Flashing A metal or plastic strip attached to the outside of the head or side jambs to provide a weather barrier, preventing leakage between the frame and the wall
Flush Bolts Bolts mounted in a door to lock a door in place.  These bolts slide up into the jamb above the door, and down into the threshold or floor below door.  These are used primarily on double doors or bifold doors, where one door is locked in place and the other door is the one mainly used.  When needed, the door locked in place can be opened.  Flush bolts are mounted flush with the edge of the door
French Doors Double hinged door (see Hinged Door)
Gas Fill The use of gases other than air (such as argon, krypton, xenon etc) in a sealed insulating glazing unit, for the purpose of reducing conductive/convective heat transfer
Glazing Glass panels that are placed into prepared openings, eg windows, door panels, curtain walls etc
Glazing Bead Strip or trim surrounding the edge of the glass in a window or door that holds the glass in place.
Grade A safety glass A type of safety glazing that complies with Australian Standard 1288 (AS1288)
Hardwood Hardwood timber are leaf bearing trees. Some examples of hardwoods are oak, maple, mahogany, meranti, cherry, walnut, rosewood and teak.
Head The jamb that sits at the top of the frame
Heat flux exposure level The quanity of heat energy per unit area that is measured on an exposed surface and it includes heat transferred by convection and radiation.
Heat Gain The transfer of heat from outside to inside by means of conduction, convection and radiation through all surfaces of a buildings
Heat Loss The transfer of heat from inside to outside by means of conduction, convention and radiation through all surfaces of a building
Heat Transfer Heat transfer can be through one of three process conduction, radiation and convention
Heat Treated Glass which is heat treated or heat strengthened or fully toughened (known as fully tempered glass)
Hertz Frequency cycles per second of sound
Highlite Fixed glass, fixed sash or operable sash above the head of a window or door
Hinged Doors A door which is hinged in such a way that it can be opened inward or outward. Double hinged doors are also known as french doors
Hinges Hinges are the metal objects that attach your door to the jamb, normally with screws
Hopper A window with a top sash that swings inward
IGU – Integrated Glazing Unit Integrated Glazing Unit – IGU’s consists of two or more panels of glass separated by an air space and some type of spacer around the edges. The spacer contains a desiccant (drying agent) which eliminates moisture vapour in the cavity. The combination of the two panels of glass and the trapped air is what makes IGU’s a superior energy efficient method of glazing. The IGU can perform a thermal and noise insulating function. The narrowest air gap used is 6mm, but wider gaps (10-20mm) will improve performance. For greater performance one of the glass panels should have a low-e coating and argon gas between the panes.Simply, two or more panels of glass spaced apart and factory sealed with dry air or special gases in the unit’s cavity.
Infiltration The movement of outdoor air into the interior of a building through cracks around windows and doors or in walls, roofs and floors
Insulating Glass A combination of two or more panes of glass with a hermetically sealed air space between the panes of glass. This space may or may not be filled with an inert gas, such as argon.
Interlocker A vertical frame member used to provide closure between a fixed lite/fixed sash and an operable sash
Interlocking Stile An upright frame member of a panel in a sliding glass door or window which engages with a corresponding member in an adjacent panel when the product is closed
Jamb Framing members used to support the window in a wall and are located at the sides
Laminated Glass A composite unit of glass and interlayer material. Note that laminated glass will crack and break under sufficient impact but the glass will adhere to the plastic interlayer instead of falling apartLaminated glass is constructed by combining two panes of glass fused together with a middle layer of Polyvinyl Butylenes Film (PVB). PVB acts like a bonding agent to hold broken glass together. This feature creates an effective barrier against entry and reduces the chances of flying shards of glass.
Lite Lites (lights) are individual panes of glass within a window
Low-E Glass A thin (<100mm thick) metal, metal oxide or multi layer coating deposited on a glazing surface to reduce its thermal infrared emittance and thereby reduce radiative heat transfer.  A low e coating increases a window’s ability to insulate (low u value).  In other words, it has a microscopic coating applied during glass manufacturer and is durable hard coat bonded to the glass.
Low Lite Fixed glass, fixed sash or operable sash below the portion of the window that is below the transom
Louvre A window unit comprising a series of blades of glass, or other material, lapping each other which allows ventilation
Manifestation Specific marking on the glass so it helps minimise the potential for human impact or injury, that is motifs on glass - see AS1288-2006 Glazing Code
Maximum Thickness The maximum thickness tolerance for a panel of glass
Meeting rails Horizontal intermediate sash members that meet when the window is closed such that they combine to act in unison
Meeting stiles Vertical intermediate sash members that meet when the window is closed such that they combine to act in unison
Meranti Meranti is a hardwood timber. Meranti varies from a light to dark texture with a moderately coarse texture.
Minimum Thickness The minimum thickness tolerance for a panel of glass
Monolithic Glass Monolithic glass is the most basic of glass forms. It is simply one glass thickness.
Mullion Vertical members between window lites.
NFRC National Fenestration Rating Council (International)
Noise Reduction The quantitative measure of sound isolation between spaces is called Noise Reduction(NR)
Non-combustible The classification of a material that is deemed not to be combustible when subjected to testing under Australian Standard 1530.1
Obscure Glass Any textured glass(frosted, etched, fluted, ground etc) used for privacy, light diffusion or decorative effects
Pane Single sheet of glass
Palladian window A large, arch-top window flanked by smaller windows on each side
Patio Door A door that opens onto a patio, deck or backyard of a house, usually made of glass to allow for viewing.
Parliament Hinges Hinges that can be folded right back against the wall
Picture Window Fixed panes of glass used for light and views only
Processed Glass Glass where the surface has been altered by etching, sandblasting, chipping, grinding, etc and is used to change its light diffusion or for decorative effects and it can then be further treated for edge work, tempered, stained glass etc after forming
Radiation The transfer of heat in the form of electromagnetic waves from one separate surface to another. Energy from the sun reaches the earth by radiation, and a person’s body can lose heat to a cold window or skylight surface in a similar way
Rail Horizontal sash member that forms the top and bottom of a window/door sash
Raised Door Panel A door panel on which the edges have been contoured or shaped to provide an aesthetically appealing, three-dimensional effect
Reveal Timber surround aluminium frame
R-value The higher the R-value the thermal resistance of the glazing system, meaning the less heat transferences allowed. It is the reciprocal of the u-Value
Rw Weighted sound reduction index that uses airborne sound and is viewed as being more appropriate for rating the attenuation of external low frequency noise, eg traffic
STC Sound Transmission Class – measuring internal sound transmission
Safety Glass Glass that has been manufactured or treated into a form that reduces the likelihood of personal injury through cutting or piercing if the glass should be broken by human or other type of impact. Safety A Grade glass is either toughened or laminated glass
Sash A sash is the operating/moving part of a window, inclusive of glass and the surrounding pieces that hold it together. The sash fits into a frame that is tied into the surrounding walls and holds the sash into place.
Side Lite A fixed, often narrow glass window, located next to a window or door opening.
Sill Framing member at the bottom
Single Glazing Single pane of glass – one sheet of glass
Sliding Window A window that has the opening sash sliding in a horizontal direction past the other fixed half
Side lite or Side Light An assembly of stiles and rails, with or without a wood pane/aluminium panels, containing a single row of glass panels or lights and installed on one or both sides of an exterior door frame, especially a front entrance door frame. Also used in older houses to frame interior doors
Softwood Softwood timber are any cone bearing trees and come from coniferous trees such as cedar, fir, ash, birch, spruce, hemlock, hickory, beech and pine and tend to be somewhat yellow or reddish in appearance.
Solar Heat Gain Co-efficient (SHGC) The Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC) measures how well a window blocks heat from sunlight.  The SHGC is the fraction of the heat from the sun that enters through a window.  SHGC is expressed as a number between 0 and 1.  The lower a window’s SHGC, the less solar heat it transmits, and the greater its shading ability
Solstice Time, point in ecliptic, at which sun is farthest north or south of the equator
Sustainability Sustainability is the long term maintenance of our resources, so that we can live within the limits of what our environment can provide now and how we can preserve the environment, so the earth’s resources can also meet the future needs of our society.
Striker Plate Plate attached to door jamb, which receives the latch, when the knob or lever is turned, allows the door to be closed or opened
Sump Sill Specially engineered designed sill that sits at the bottom of the frame and allows water to drain way to the outside structure.
Tilt Window Sashes operate up and down and can also be tilted out or in (horizontally) for  ease of cleaning
Transom Horizontal timber section between top and bottom lite
u-Value U-value measures how well a product prevents heat from escaping. U-value is the measure of heat loss or gain due to the differences between inside and outside air temperature.  The lower the U value the better the insulating performance.
Visible Transmittance (VT) A measure of how much visible light comes through a windows, door or skylight. VT is expressed as a number between 0 and 1. An higher VT means more transmitted light.
Weather Stripping A material or device used to seal the openings, gaps or cracks of venting window and door units to prevent water and air infiltration
WERS Windows Energy Rating Scheme
Western Red Cedar Western Red Cedar is softwood. WRC is a soft red-brown timber that has a tight, straight grain and few knots. It is valued for its distinct appearance, aroma, and its high natural resistance to insect damage and decay, being extensively used for outdoor construction in the form of posts, decking, shingles and siding. Western Red Cedar distinguishing features is the colour variation in the grain, it can range from a light colour to deep reds and brown, each single piece of timber is unique and the grain, knots can vary within the one piece of timber.

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